Using an alternative namespace in LINQPad

LINDPad is a great tool which hides the complexity of a .NET app to allow fast development and testing of arbitrary pieces of code.

Unfortunately, it also hides the namespace definition, so it’s not possible out of the box to place a type in another namespace.

Fortunately there is a workaround, which consists of closing the implicit namespace which Main lives in, adding your custom namespace code, then opening a class EOF at the end:

	void Main()

namespace AlternativeNamespace
	public static class Foo
		public static void PrintNamespace()
			Console.WriteLine($"Foo namespace: {MethodBase.GetCurrentMethod().DeclaringType.Namespace}");

class EOF

Foo namespace: AlternativeNamespace

Pets vs. Cattle

Pets vs. Cattle is an analogy used to emphasise the differences between the pre-cloud and cloud MOs, and a mindset shift which needs to be taken to make use of the elastic scaling capabilities of the cloud.

Are your servers pets or cattle?

The real challenge is twofold:

The initial golden cow needs to be bred, from which you clone the rest of the herd.

This usually involves converting the current ephemeral state of servers and databases into concrete IaC (Infrastructure as Code) definitions, which can be used to stamp out new servers or database instances at will, in an automated fashion.

New genes need to be easily introduced into the gene pool.

This usually involves automating the release process, so changes to the IaC can be easily diffed, tested and deployed out to each server or database.


The other big benefit of cattle is that it becomes very easy for developers and testers to have their own prod-like environment, one per feature-branch, which can be created and deleted at will, quickly.

Azure Virtual Machine Scale Sets is Microsoft’s answer to stamping out cattle.

Gatekeeper cloud design pattern

The gatekeeper cloud design pattern protects an application by placing all services behind a single facade, similar to a firewall.


  • All services and data are private and hidden behind a single public endpoint, which significantly reduces the attack surface.
  • Request validation and malicious communication rejection is implemented in a single place.
  • The backend services can be optimised and scaled to handle legitimate requests only.
  • If any breach does occur, the exposure is limited to the sensitive information on the gatekeeper itself, which should be kept to a minimum.


  • The gatekeeper is a single point of failure for the entire application, and must be appropriately managed for high availability and redundancy.
  • The gatekeeper may affect performance by increasing latency, increasing load and introducing a bottleneck.


Azure example implementation

  • Place all backend services in a private virtual network.
  • Place the web app endpoint in an App Service Environment which includes an Application Gateway, from which we can make use of the Web Application Firewall which blocks many common security vulnerabilities.


Culture aware DateTime formatting

There are various DateTime.ToString() format specifiers which are culture aware, which can be very useful to show the date in a native format, e.g. Christmas day 2017

Culture ToString(“d”) ToString(“g”)
en-GB 25/12/2017 25/12/2017 00:00
en-US 12/25/2017 12/25/2017 12:00 AM
en-CA 2017-12-25 2017-12-25 12:00 AM

However, note the ‘official’ format isn’t always that most used by the people – see en-CA above.

ConcurrentDictionary.GetOrAdd() facts

In any combination of any number of threads running for any values with the same key:

  • It is guaranteed that only one item will be added
    • and this will be the only call to which true is returned.
  • It is not guaranteed that the delegate overload will only execute the delegate once
    • because the class uses optimistic concurrency control.
    • The implicit assumption is that it’s rare for multiple concurrent calls to occur in reality, so more efficient to compute anyway, then replace or throw away as appropriate.
    • If the delegate is expensive or has unwanted side effects, a Lazy<> can be used instead.


Python’s enumerate

enumerate(sequence, start=0)
  • Takes as input a sequence (string, unicode string, list, tuple, bytearray, buffer or xrange) or iterable, and an arbitrary start index
  • Returns an iterator which provides tuples containing the count and value
  • Useful to generate the index corresponding to each element:
for i, animal in enumerate(["cat", "dog", "mouse"], 1):
    print("Animal #{} is a {}".format(i, animal))
PEP 279 — The enumerate() built-in function
enumerate(sequence, start=0)